William & Mary

Lab, Instrument, and ARC Conference Room Descriptions

ToF-SIMSThrift II Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer (ToF-SIMS)

Tof-SIMS is an analytical technique that uses a primary ion beam in an ultrahigh vacuum environment to probe the rface of a solid material. Tof-SIMS provides spectroscopy for characterization of chemical composition, Imaging for determining the distribution of chemical species and depth profiling for thin film characterization.  Performance capabilities include one parameter tuning used for insulating samples, library of high mass resolution reference spectra, and high-speed SIMS imaging setup and acquisition.  Analytical applications include statistical analysis of trace (ppm) contamination and multiple defects on silicon wafers and magnetion analysis of surface contamination, drug delivery cross-sec media, high spatial resolution surface and cross-sectiction samples and failure analysis samples, and trace sensitivity for routine problem solving of contamination and defects for failure analysis and ultra-thin films.

Phenom DesktopScanning Electron Microscope (SEM)phenom

The Phenom is a desktop SEM combined with a optical color camera that will enhance our current analysis capabilities.  Advantages of the Phenom system include easy operation an simple sample preparation.  A wide range of sample types, such as  metals, polymers and biologicals, can be viewed at magnifications between 300x to 24,000x.  Samples up to 25 mm in diameter and 30 mm in height can be loaded in less than 30 seconds.  The Phenom system includes a 17 inch flat panel touch screen monitor which is used to view, compare, and measure sample images at a maximum 1024 x 1024 pixel resolution.  Images can also be saved to a USB flash drive for future use.  The Phenom is a very compact, quiet, and low maintenance addition to the lab.

Hitachi 4700 SEM/EDX
Hitachi S-4700 Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (Hitachi S-4700 FE-SE/EDX located at the ARC in Newport News)

The Hitachi S-4700 FE-SEM is a cold field emission high resolution scanning electron microscope.  The FE-SEM has a magnification range between 30x and 500,000x.  Spatial resolution of up to 1.5 nm at 15 kV, 12 mm WD and 2.5 nm at 1 k, 2.5 mm WD.  Digital images may be acquired in BMP, TIFF, or JPEG file formats.  Elemental analysis of a sample can be performed using EDAX Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy capabilities.

Hitachi 570 SEM/EDXHitachi S-570 Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (Hitachi S-570 SEM/EDX located on the W&M campus, ISC 2107B)

The Hitachi S-570 FE-SEM, located on campus, is equipped with a large sample stage, Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and WINEDS High Performance XRay Micro-Analysis software.  Applications include surface topography of solids, grain size evaluations, particle size and identification, and corrosion products/pitting analysis.

Empyrean Series 2 X-Ray Diffraction System      XRD

With the Empyrean, PANalytical has set the new standard for a multipurpose diffractometer. In developing the ultimate X-ray platform for the analysis of powders, thin films, nanomaterials and solid objects, the PANalytical R&D team has redesigned all key components of the X-ray diffractometer from the ground up. It is PANalytical's answer to the challenges of modern materials research, where the lifetime of a diffractometer is considerably longer than the horizon of any research project.

FT-IRNicolet Nexus 670 Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectrometer (FT-IR)

FT-IR spectroscopy is used for molecular characterization of solids, liquids, gases, and on surfaces.  The diversity of materials that the FT-IR can examine and the ease of sample preparation are what makes it so appealing.


  • 11,000 - 375 cm-1 Range
  • 0.125 cm-1 Resolution
  • Transmission, ATR and DRIFT operation available
  • DTGS detector

FT-IR is currently optimized for mid-IR spectroscopy.

HIROX KH-7700 High Resolution Digital-Video Microscopy System (HIROX) hirox1

The new HIROX KH-7700 digital microscope is not only more user friendly than our old equipment, but also provides more accurate measurement, analysis, and output capabilities.  Enhanced 3-dimensional image synthesis and image comparison are now available.  A new report generation feature will save a significant amount time and standardize our documentation.  This compact system includes a digital camera, light source, LCD monitor, computer and software which are all integrated into one compact unit.  Zoom capabilities ranging from 10x to 7000x magnification can be achieved by using a variety of lenses.

VASEM44 Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometer (VASE)

Ellipsometry is a technique used to characterize optical properties and thicknesses of thin films by measuring the change in polarization state of light reflected from the surface of (or through) a sample. Calculations are carried out by using physical models of specified layered structures to simulate the interaction of polarized light on the sample.

Available model layer types include Alloy, Temperature, Cauchy, Lorentz Oscillator, Graded, Anisotropic, Kramers-Kronig, Delay, Virtual Interface, and Surface Roughness.  Xenon lamp source provides continuous spectral range of 220-2000 nm, with sharp lines between 800 and 900 nm, allowing for a thin film thickness measurement range of about 5-1000 nm.  Available configurations include both ex-situ and in-situ.

Suface ProfilerDektak 3 ST Surface Profiler (Suface Profiler)

This is an extremely accurate high precision surface measurement system.  Analytical functions include parameters for roughness, waviness, step height, and geometry.  Available styli include sub-micro, 2.5 mm, 12.5 mm, and 25 mm.

Digital Instruments Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM)

Microscopy techniques: 

  • SPMAtomic Force
    • Tapping Mode (Instructional Guide)
    • Contact Mode
    • Non-Contact Mode
  • Fluid Cell
  • Electric Force
  • Scanning Tunneling
  • Magnetic Force
    • MFM Instructional Guide
  • Nanoindentor
Shimadzu Vickers Microhardness Tester Type M Shimadzu Vickers Microhardness Tester Type M

The Vickers Microhardness Tester is primarily used for fine wires, thin plates, super-hardened surfaces, thin films, implanted materials, and the precise hardness of other materials.  It is equipped with a Computer Assisted Measurement System (C.A.M.S.) and imaging capabilities.

The Vickers Microhardness Tester uses a square based diamond pyramid whose opposite sides meet at the apex at an angle of 136 degrees. The Vickers number is known as HV and is calculated using the following formula:

HV(applied load) = 1.854 (F/D2)
(F = applied load in Kgm-force)
(D2 = area of indentation in mm)

MakerBot Replicator Mini Compact 3D Printer     makerbot

The Makerbot Replicator Mini is housed in a rigid frame which is open at the front, on the sides, and on top, permitting easy access to the print bed and easy viewing of prints in progress. Printing can be initiated from a computer over a USB or Wi-Fi connection, as well as over Wi-Fi from an iOS or Android phone or tabloid with the MakerBot Mobile app installed.  A camera in an upper corner of the Mini allows monitoring of print jobs from a computer or mobile device.  The Mini's build area is 3.9 x 3.9 x 4.9 inches.  Small (0.5-pound) spools of 1.75mm polylactic acid (PLA) filament are required and are available at the lab in several colors.

Main Conference Room  (Room 100)
  • Main Conference RoomOne large table that comfortably seats 10

  • Seating for 15 total

  • Overhead projector

  • Computer with internet access and overhead projection

  • White Boards with markers

  • Coffee maker

  • Telephone with speaker

Video Conference Room
Video Conference Room  (Room 301) 
  •  5 large tables that can be arranged into conference, classroom or u-shaped seating

  • Comfortable seating for 14

  • Overhead projector

  • Computer with internet access and overhead projection

  • Videoconferencing capabilities using Tandberg system

  • Telephone with speaker

Large Conference RoomLarge Conference Room  (Room 201)
  • One large table that comfortably seats 10

  • Overhead projector 

  • Two White Boards

Small Conference Room (Room 200)
  • Small Conference RoomTable that comfortably seats 9

  • TV

  • White Board

  • Large selection of scientific journals

  • Refrigerator