Upperclass Summer Projects 2006

Julie Barnes - What is a mountain? For some people, a mountain provides a physical challenge to conquer. For other people, the peak represents a way to commune euphorically with a higher being. For yet other people, a mountain resembles a malignant scar on the otherwise flat surface of the earth.

Regardless of how a person perceives a mountain, the truth remains that mountains affect people through a combination of physical, emotional, intellectual, and spiritual influences. Researching the effects of short-term simulated altitude (intermittent hypoxic exposure, or IHE) provided me an opportunity to study the physical, cognitive, and emotional aspects of mountains. Traveling to the Canadian Rockies and experiencing mountains firsthand, in combination with a variety of secondhand accounts of mountain experiences from books, allowed me to revel in the inspiration of mountains.

Nathan Belcher - To create an optical clock, the Görlitz group needed a stable laser at 648.906 nm to transition a group of ultra-cold atoms from the 3P0 ' 3S1 energy level. The ultra-cold atoms were achieved by using the same techniques found in the creation of Bose-Einstein condensates, and the laser was fabricated to provide single-mode operation of a highly uniform beam. When the laser was positioned on the ultra-cold atoms, the group saw the excitation of the proper transition and an increase in the number of atoms in the magnet-optical trap.

Lenore Cebulski - On the side of the largest mountain on the biggest island off the coast of Ireland stand the remains of a deserted village, stone houses standing as a testament to the generations that struggled to survive in Ireland's harsh conditions.

My first view of the Deserted Village at Slievemore was breathtaking. From my stance on the road, I could see past Slievemore Mountain to the Atlantic, and as I turned around to look back at my home for the next six weeks, the village of Dooagh, I could see the ocean stretching out endlessly in the other direction.

For my Monroe Project, I participated in a field school on Achill Island. My chief aim was to learn more about archaeological methods, but it had always been my dream to accomplish this goal while surrounded by European archaeological sites. Europe has always been the focus of my academic passion, and the archaeology in Ireland spans millennia.

My knowledge increased concerning the methods and equipment used on site, but also how there are often as many theories about the function of a site as archaeologists present. In addition to our on-site education, our field school included many lectures, through which I learned more about both Irish history and the archaeology being carried out around the country. Every Wednesday we took field trips to sites around the island, a tower house one day, a promontory fort the next, a megalithic tomb on yet another.

Being surrounded by the places we discussed daily had more impact on my understanding than any book or lecture ever could. One Friday after work, four of us set off up the towering Slievemore Mountain. Two hours of hard exertion later we reached the summit; the sight nearly took my breath away. Stretching out below us was all of Achill Island, green rolling countryside cut often by mountains, and beyond that the Atlantic Ocean, fading into the horizon. I had come here to learn about archaeological field methods, but I came away with so much more.

Adrianne Colton - Environmental data from tidal creeks are evaluated in the Oceans and Human Health Initiative to evaluate the impact that construction facilities and urbanization have on the physical and chemical, coastal environment, and therefore on the health and welfare of the human population.

Measurements of water quality, including temperature, salinity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, and pH, chemicals and nutrients, and water pathogens in 11 tidal creek systems were made from June through August 2006. Four creeks in South Carolina, four creeks in Georgia, and three creeks in North Carolina were sampled over this period.

Guerin Creek, an 8000 meter forested watershed, was the first creek sampled in South Carolina. Chlorophyll measurements around 12.17 micrograms per liter were close to those known to indicate possible growth of harmful algal blooms, often a sign of human-caused water pollution due to excess nutrients. This creek had small temperature and salinity fluctuations, between 26.42 and 31.22°C and 21.63 and 22.80 ppt, respectively, which indicates little degradation of the watershed system due to increased impervious cover and human population density.

Turbidity measurements showed an average of 16.58 NTU, indicating relatively light-penetrable water, and, therefore, higher concentrations of dissolved oxygen. The average dissolved oxygen percent air saturation of the Guerin Creek system, using preliminary data collected from the YSI 6600 DataSonde, was 68.49.

In the first of the water pathogen samples sent to the Pathogen Tracking Core of the Oceans and Human Health Initiative, the counts were comparable to those taken in previous years in similar systems. Using F+RNA coliphage typing, the same method used on Guerin Creek samples, the first samples from Bly Creek came back positive for Type I coliphage, a grouping that indicates contamination from animal sources.

Based on the preliminary results, the Guerin Creek tidal system exhibited data typical of an uncontaminated forested system, where approximately 2.5% of the watershed is covered in impervious surfaces.

Elizabeth Coy - For my Monroe scholar project, I researched how recent changes to both domestic and international policy in Costa Rica have affected their orphanage system structure. Many Latin American countries unfortunately experience problems with fraudulent adoption procedures, and the Costa Rican government, being fully aware of the threats associated with adoption made recent policy changes in an attempt to bring the adoption process under stricter governmental control.

Domestically, fraudulent adoption cases in Costa Rica have been associated with private adoption, so in 2003, the Costa Rican government attempted to abolish private adoption altogether. Foreign child trafficking rings were also exposed and in consequence, Costa Rica closed its doors to many countries, making it impossible for them to internationally adopt Costa Rican children.

While the changes to the system were made in recognition of real problems, unfortunately, the new system has become such a complicated process and so highly regulated, that it is preventing well-deserving children from being placed in loving homes, leaving them stuck behind in the system for the duration of their "childhood."

Through volunteering in a Costa Rican orphanage I was able to witness first hand the everyday occurrences of orphanage life, learn about the adoption process, and was also able to conduct interviews with the home's founders, board members, staff workers, a local lawyer, those that have worked intimately at placing children in homes through the Costa Rican system, as well as those whom formerly worked placing children in American homes, and those fighting against PANI in order for Americans to be able to adopt from Costa Rica once again.

Juliana Glassco - This summer I worked with award-winning historical documentary film writer/director/producer Laurie Kahn-Leavitt at her independent company Blueberry Hill Productions in Watertown, Massachusetts. As the only full-time intern and one of two employees at Blueberry Hill, I compiled grant proposals and budgets, researched potential film subjects, assisted in planning for future films, and participated in many general aspects of preproduction. We spent time researching in both the Sophia Smith and the Schlesinger archives, and much of what we found has been stored away in databases for use in future films.

My work was part of Kahn-Leavitt's long-term vision for a series of twelve films about women--remarkable women in our nation's past who have never before been in history's spotlight, but who have contributed greatly nonetheless to this country's growth and evolution. Subjects that we specifically focused on were settlement house workers, women path breakers on Capitol Hill, and the Mercury Thirteen, a group of would-be women astronauts in the early nineteen-sixties. Her next film, which will be about the Mercury Thirteen, is still in its very beginning phases, so the fruits of my labor will not begin to be evident until she finishes the film a couple of years from now.

I also had the opportunity to spend my last four days in Boston working with writer/director/producer María Agui Carter as a production assistant and an extra during the shooting of her documentary film "Rebel." I was fortunate to be exposed to the many facets of the documentary film world during my time in Boston, and I am grateful that I had the opportunity to offer my services to the field.

Megan Henry - The Peking Opera performances that can be found in Beijing are the result of a long history of performing arts in China. In ancient times it would be an unimaginable concept to watch a performance of merely spoken word. Movement and music were inextricably bound together and were usually used in commemorative or religious ceremonies. From these traditions and years of cultural evolution has immerged modern Peking Opera. Of course modern is not the right word. The more accurate phrase is traditional Peking Opera performed in modern times.

In western culture the classic is revived because the artist can unearth the themes of the piece that are relevant to a modern audience. In Peking Opera to adapt even the color of a characters costume would be to rob the work of pieces of its intended meaning. To look at the modernization of classical forms of the performing arts in China it is necessary to see the evolution of the art, and to not view the theatre in China as a stagnant place were one style can endure forever only with new plots, but must ultimately change into a style that can address the concerns of the society which it serves. The result of this process is an art form which no longer serves as a mirror which reflects and allows for commentary on contemporary society but as cultural relic, a living museum exhibit.

Jennifer Hoover - For centuries, many have called the Archabbey of Pannonhalma "an island of peace", and during World War II, the Benedictines strove to keep this description a reality. Built in 996 and high atop Saint Martin's Mount in Hungary, Pannonhalma has a history of giving shelter and aid to those in need.

Continuing this tradition, the Benedictines of the 1940s opened their large iron gate and welcomed hundreds, and later thousands, of people fleeing the chaos, devastation, and danger of wartime Europe. In exchange for the protection of the International Red Cross, the Benedictines opened a children's home and a hospital. With large red crosses painted on their rooftops, Pannonhalma became a sanctuary for anyone seeking help.

During June and July of 2006, I traveled to Hungary and France to conduct an oral history project on the refuge efforts of Pannonhalma during World War II. My project focused on evaluating the constraints of the wartime situation and the concept of agency, or the ability of people to act and have control over their lives. The sources show that the decisions of the Benedictine monks, high school students, and refugees on how to use agency not only made the relief and rescue efforts a success, but also made survival possible. For example, the wartime community of Pannonhalma expressed their agency by choosing to help hundreds of men over the age of fourteen, Jews, and deserters, even though this action went against the terms of protection.

This experience allowed me to experiment with various research methods and techniques. I interviewed various people who were at Pannonhalma during the war including a monk, a student, and refugees. Other sources included government documents, International Red Cross papers, correspondences, memoirs, thank you letters, and dvd documentaries. While in Hungary, I spent four days at the Pannonhalma Archabbey, visited museums and synagogues, and worked with researchers at the Holocaust Museum. I also began learning the Hungarian language by having a private tutor and taking daily classes at a language school, Katendra Nyelviskola in Budapest.

Judd Kennedy - With the words "very smooth crossing" twenty-year old John F. Kennedy began his first independent trip to Europe in 1937 aboard the S.S Washington. Sailing through the icy waves of the North Atlantic, the youthful Kennedy embarked upon a summer journey of self-exploration and discovery that would forever shape his perceptions of the international community. In his suitcase he carried three pajama pant tops and bottoms, seven handkerchiefs, sixteen pairs of socks, eight pairs of underwear, fourteen shirts, four pairs of pants, one bush shirt -- and his car.

No ordinary backpacker, Kennedy hoped to rediscover the land of his faith, witness the mounting tension before World War II, and maybe even sneak into Spain as a journalist or Red Cross employee. Over a two month time period, the President-to-be recorded all of his travels and escapades in a leather bound journal titled "My Trip Abroad."

Inspired by his journey, I spent my summer following Kennedy's path through England, France, Italy, and Germany. I juxtaposed my experience in Europe after 9-11 to Kennedy's experience prior to World War II. Similar to Kennedy's observations about the nature of fascism, communism, and democratic socialism in pre-war Europe, my research attempted to examine the nature of anti-Arab sentiments caused by immigration and the war on terror in the new millenium.

I maintained a journal of my trip abroad, collected personal interviews from citizens and immigrants in each country, and compared my travels to the experience of Kennedy in 1937. Just as the trip profoundly influenced Kennedy's world view, it inherently challenged me to rethink my perceptions of the continent, fellow travelers, and my identity. Thus my journal describes the deliberate research of my project and my unconscious personal transformation resulting from the trip.

Stephanie Li - NGOs work all over China helping disadvantaged groups. I conducted a field observation in order to see what kind of health impact an international Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) would have on the needy population.

I worked in an orphanage which was funded by the Chinese Agape Foundation. I interviewed six staff workers in the orphanage to find out their thoughts on care and common health problems which they encounter with the orphans. I stayed in the orphanage for six weeks, which allowed me to have direct observation of orphans' lives. I also compared the living conditions found between the orphanage and the village school's dorm.

From the interviews, I found that the most common illnesses among the orphans were common cold and fever. The director of the orphanage was in charge of dealing all the healthcare problems of the children. From the observation, I found that children performed cleaning duty regularly. Vaccinations, clothes and food for children were sufficiently provided by the orphanage. In comparison with children without the NGO care, the orphans are much better provided for, especially with the food and clothing supply.

All in all, the NGO has direct positive effect to the orphans in the perspectives of health, schooling and living conditions. It has provided a conducive environment for the orphans' well-beings and health.

Olivia Lucas - This project explored the relatively uncharted academic territory of Finnish heavy metal music, not only as a distinct category of heavy metal, but also as an expression of Finnish cultural identity.

A lack of directly pertinent scholarly material provided both an opportunity and a challenge to conduct much research directly. Research methods included: research on Finland as a nation, interviews with bands and fans, attendance at a 3-day heavy metal festival in Helsinki and other concerts, an exploratory visit to the Lapland and SIIDA cultural museum and recordings of Finnish heavy metal, classical and folk music.

Interviews with bands revealed a strong identity as composers of distinctively "Finnish" music. The reactions of fans ranged from surprise that anyone had heard of or cared about "their" music to enthusiastic communication of everything that they knew about Finnish heavy metal bands and music.

After interviews, time in Finland and reading were completed, Piercian semiotics as interpreted by Thomas Turino were applied to establish five signs extant in the music that worked to signify Finnish-ness. These were designated as Nature, the Past, the Epic, Folk, and the classical/Romantic. Through the careful examination of the musical elements that evoke these signs, their modes of operation within the music can be established. For example, a song that glorifies the aurora borealis calls on Nature. A more subtle example would be the use of an unflinching, militaristic snare drum pattern in an evocation of the Past.

Combining this musical analysis with the other research allows the construction of Finnish-ness in the music. Heavy metal has become an artistic voice and a rebirth of national romanticism for Finland; through intimate integration with the nation's past and present, it vociferously expresses the thoughts, feelings and cultural identity of a people who have long been silent.

Kelli Monahan - "I've known Nicholas all his life and known he was a saint since the day he raised a sheep from the dead." So begins the story of Louise, a peasant girl, who in the year 1212, follows Nicholas, a twelve-year-old shepherd, along with several thousand other children from Cologne, Germany to the Mediterranean Sea in an attempt to free the Holy Land.

Nicholas has told them that the waters of the Mediterranean will part when they reach the edge of the sea. Having grown up with stories of saints, Louise believes in miracles, and she and the other children set out trusting that God will provide everything they need. Disease, hunger, and death were never part of Louise's image of the crusade, but she finds them along with kindness, love, and wonder.

Still, as Louise can no longer ignore that the crusade isn't living up to Nicholas's promises, she questions him, those around her, and her faith itself. At the end of her journey, Louise hasn't reached the Holy Land, but she's grown from girl to woman and gone farther than she ever imagined. "I'm not afraid,' I say, and I mean it. I've been a pilgrim, a healer, and a minstrel. I've visited Geneva and Genoa. I've seen people at their best and their worst, miracles and tragedies. I've told stories and truths, even faced down a mob. If I were still afraid, I'd go home to where my life was laid out for me. Instead, I'm holding it in my own hands."

Diana Morelen - The primary goal of this study was to research the different ways that children living an African village express their emotions compared to children living in an orphanage.

Between the ages of 5-10 years, children in Western culture are actively taught by their parents that there are certain situations in which you do not express how you feel because it will hurt someone's feelings or get you in trouble (Saarni, 1999). These emotion rules are termed cultural display rules.

To date, no one has examined how children in African countries may express their disappointment/sadness, frustration/anger, and pride. With the help of a translator, I used questionnaires and interviewed the children in both living environments to investigate these research questions. The participants for this study included 39 children from ages 5 to 15 living in the village, and 17 children from ages 6 to 15 living in the orphanage. Statistical analysis will be used to determine the effects (if any) of living environment, gender, and age have on children's expression of emotion in Kpando, Ghana.

Kimberley Peck - We write our names on history's page/ With expectations great,/ Strict guardians of our heritage,/ Firm craftsmen of our fate./ --Barbados National Anthem, Irving Louis Burgie.

The connection between a nation's heritage and the identity of its people is undeniably strong, and though few people often think about it, that connection is a fact that maintains a presence in our everyday lives. But what happens when a small island nation like Barbados, with an amazingly rich and extensive history, has to decide between the preservation of its national historic sites and the progress of the tourism industry on which its economy depends?

The conflict between economic growth and historic preservation is one that many developing countries are now facing, especially in an age of globalization. The steps and measures Barbados is taking in response to these changes are shaping a new Barbadian identity. Historically a center for economic activity in the Atlantic World, Barbados is regaining its former luster with a burgeoning tourism industry driven, most recently, by the country's position as host of the ICC Cricket World Cup 2007.

While the rapid pace of economic development, the Barbados national government and non-governmental organizations like the Barbados Museum and Historical Society and the Barbados National Trust have made significant efforts to preserve the country's historic and cultural resources against the demands of tourism. Though the fast pace of commercial development does not usually mesh with archaeological excavation and building restoration, the Ministry of Tourism recently stated in its "Green Paper on Sustainable Development of Tourism" that one of its policy goals was to "invest in the conservation, development and marketing of our cultural heritage while encouraging the preservation of its integrity."

The National Trust and the Barbados Museum continue to focus on surveying sites on the island and preserving those which hold the most cultural and historic import, as well as those with potential for significant investigative research. In 2006, Parliament was presented with the Preservation of Antiquities and Relics Bill.

There is little doubt that the stewardship of the nation's heritage will have to confront the power of tourism and economic development. The emerging Barbadian style of preservation and incorporation of their heritage into their daily lives is as uniquely theirs as their rich history and way of life--it will be done in "the Bajan way".

Kristin Pederson - The Manual of Cultivated Plants Most Commonly Grown in the Continental United States and Canada (originally published in 1924 and updated in 1949) is an important resource that enables the identification of over 5,000 plants in cultivation. Although this work still occupies a prominent place as a research reference, a large number of species have entered cultivation since 1949. In addition, taxonomic changes have resulted in new names being applied to many species, as well as changes in the diagnostic limits of those species.

The purpose of this project was to revise a small taxon (the genus Linaria) of The Manual, allowing that portion to cover its originally intended scope. This included the production of a new key to the new set of species, as well as updates in nomenclature, species concepts, descriptions, and illustrations where necessary. Since Bailey (1949) has now lapsed into public domain, we intend to publish this revision in a suitable horticultural journal.

Mackenzie Roby - Resistance training is thought to be an affective means for lessening the deterioration of muscles, particularly after a period of disuse. The object of this investigation was to assess the effects of resistance training on the neuromuscular junction.

Young (9 months) and older (20 months) male Fisher 344 rats were trained three days a week for six weeks. Resistance training was achieved by ladder climbing (one meter, 85º angle) eight times per session. At the end of the training period, rats were euthanized and soleus muscles were removed and frozen at -85º Celsius. Longitudinal sections were taken at -20º C and cytofluorescent staining procedures were applied to examine the neuromuscular junction using confocal microscopy. Pre-synaptic evaluation was quantified by nerve terminal branching (ACh), and post-synaptic evaluation was quantified by endplate perimeter and area (BTX).

Results as determined by ANOVA showed that significant differences (pd0.05) existed for total BTX area, stained BTX area, and the BTX dispersion of the neuromuscular junctions located on the primary slow-twitch (85%) myofibers. The pre- to post-synaptic relationship of the slow-twitch neuromuscular junctions (branch length/BTX area) was also significantly altered. However the neuromuscular junctions on the less dominant fast-twitch myofibers failed to produce any significant adaptations.

In conclusion, the present data demonstrates that while aging elicits significant remodeling of the neuromuscular junction, resistance training fails to induce these changes. Moreover it can be insinuated that these aging effects are specific to the myofiber type in the soleus muscle.

Christine Royer - For many North Americans, Aboriginal Art remains essentially inaccessible. The underlying factors behind this relatively recent creative outpouring--the Dreaming and the social and political climate of Australia--are not widely understood, thereby crippling any sort of meaningful interaction one could have with such masterpieces as "Cyclone Tracy" (Rover Thomas) or "Wild Potato (Yala) Dreaming" (Billy Stockman Tjapaltjarri).

For this, my upperclassman Monroe project, I have conducted research examining the art and art history of Aboriginal Australia. I examined the development of Aboriginal art, from its earliest form 50,000 years ago on cave walls to more contemporary and more political pieces such as "The Aboriginal Memorial, 200 hollow log coffins", created in 1988 to mark 200 years of white occupation of Australia.

I also briefly explored the connection between Aboriginal art and the Dreaming, a link crucial to an understanding of all forms of indigenous Australian art. My research concludes with an in-depth examination of the three major art-producing regions of Australia: the Central and Western Desert, the Kimberly, and Arnhem Land. Additionally, I created ten original pieces of art, drawing from my research and experiences in Australia.

Eric Sandridge - The business world is a tricky industry. One must investigate the industry, develop business plans, market the product, develop financial predictions, and hopefully, sell the product with some success. However, there are numerous, and occasionally unpredictable occurrences that can completely derail a new business. After all, predictions are only hypothetical possibilities. What happens when reality starts to differ from the "on paper" plan?

The bee pollination industry is not a well-known industry and is highly misunderstood by the general populous; however, it may be one of the most important industries in the future of food production. Consumers might wonder how a tiny, stinging insect has any effect on the products found in their neighborhood grocery store. Well, it is a large chain of events that eventually ends in the sale of produce. Many plants need pollination for proper growth, especially produce like pumpkins, watermelon, and cantaloupe. Without pollination, the number of fruit is significantly decreased, and the produce that does grow, is often irregular in shape.

Now, if pollination is such a necessity, why is there any problem marketing pollination to produce farmers everywhere? This summer, I conducted research regarding the start-up and effective management of a pollination business. This industry is extremely lucrative; however, the work is labor intensive and bees, as live resources, are extremely misunderstood as dangerous. In addition, although pollination is required for successful produce growth, many farmers have no idea that pollination is necessary. These farmers continue to "risk their crop" each year because they only receive pollination from wild pollinators. The number of bee keepers is diminishing, which will result in an inability to effectively grow produce.

This project was an exercise in business administration, but brought an important issue to light. Is the importance of pollination being overlooked?

Stephen Schworer - In this study we examined the effect of erythropoietin (Epo) stimulation on tyrosine phosphorylation of transient receptor potential channel canonical 3 (TRPC3). Epo stimulation is known to increase calcium influx through TRPC3. We are investigating if tyrosine phosphorylation of TRPC3 is responsible for this calcium influx.

We transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells with TRPC3 and the erythropoietin receptor (Epo-R) to study the effect of Epo on tyrosine phosphorylation of TRPC3. To determine if the Src tyrosine kinase affected TRPC3 phosphorylation, we transfected cells with Src and a Src mutant vector, and measured levels of tyrosine phosphorylation of TRPC3.

Epo stimulation of HEK 293T cells transfected with TRPC3 and Epo-R showed an increase in TRPC3 tyrosine phosphorylation. Cells transfected with active Src in addition to TRPC3 and Epo-R showed increased TRPC3 tyrosine phosphorylation compared with cells transfected with empty vector. Also, cells transfected with Src displayed an increase in TRPC3 tyrosine phosphorylation with Epo stimulation.

Future experiments studying the role of Src in phosphorylation of TRPC3 and its effect on calcium influx will be conducted using cell lines deficient in Src and the other Src family kinases Yes and Fyn.

Kurt Steinhouse - Known by such street names as Tina, ice, and glass and traditionally found in rural areas, methamphetamine has seen a rise in popularity of its crystalline form in spite of recent legislation to counteract its spread.

One facet of the drug that has contributed to this is its synthetic composition. Unlike other illicit drugs, methamphetamine does not come from a plant, so it is much easier to produce in private spaces. Another reason that methamphetamine has seen a surge in use is its creation in clandestine laboratories. These methamphetamine labs can be small enough to fit inside a small bag, or they may be large enough to take up whole buildings. Methamphetamine superlabs, which produce large quantities of the drug, are responsible for most of the methamphetamine on the market.

The nature of methamphetamine's distribution plays a key role in its spread as well. The drug used to be distributed only among close relations because there were fewer steps between its production and its reaching consumers. In recent years, the amount of methamphetamine produced domestically has fallen significantly. Mexican criminal groups, however, have offset this decline by producing the drug in Mexico and in turn have made methamphetamine's distribution reminiscent of other drugs.

While legislation has proven effective in curtailing methamphetamine production in the United States, further legislation targeting importation will be needed if the spread of methamphetamine is to be put to a stop.

Lee Struck - In April 1943 British Intelligence executed Operation Mincemeat, an exercise that successfully deceived the Germans into believing that Allied Forces would not invade Sicily. A key component of the operation was the use of a corpse to deliver false information in the form of fabricated documents to Berlin via fascist sympathizers in Spain.

This rather successful and brazen operation is interesting in itself, but perhaps the most interesting component is the identity of the corpse. The acquisition of the corpse and other aspects of the operation raise several ethical questions. First, the question of how did the intelligence service and the officers involved receive permission to use a body. Second, if it was the body of a serviceman, whether or not they simply took the body without permission.

Several journalists, authors and amateur historians have researched this case extensively and suggested identities of the corpse. Four of these have shown promise and were the subject of my research in the United Kingdom and Huelva, Spain. Emlyn Howells, Reginald Harrison, Tom Martin and Glyndwr Michael are the names these researches suggested.

Recently, Glyndwr Michael was confirmed as "The Man Who Never Was" and it is his name that now appears on the tomb of "Major Martin" in Spain. Despite this official legitimization, my research led me to a different conclusion due to inconsistencies in the background of the corpse and that of Glyndwr Michael.

While I was unable to uncover any further clues on the identity of the body, I feel that my research indicates that these previously suggested identities are unlikely and that the identity remains a mystery.

Kathryn Swanson - In the summer of 2006, I traveled to Rota, Spain to participate in an archaeological survey being conducted on the local United States Naval Station. There, I worked on base with both Navy-employed and contract archaeologists to determine the locations and contents of the major sites within the perimeter of the station. Together, these sites ranged from the prehistoric era (500,000-300,000 years ago) through the twentieth century and revealed a wealth of data about the history of the area.

My research during this survey was primarily concerned with locating and documenting concentrations of historic-era ceramic fragments. While similar pieces of ceramics were found scattered throughout the base, I focused on the two largest clusters. In addition to locating the sites, I collected and analyzed samples of the fragments from the surface of each area to determine more about what lay below the soil. While time restraints and international laws restricted my activities to above-ground investigations, I was able to collect a surprisingly large sample of ceramics that yielded a great deal of information.

Based on the decoration techniques and styles found on certain artifacts, for example, date ranges for the sites could be determined as ranging from the seventeenth century through the twentieth century. Vessel types also provided clues about how the sites were used. For instance, a fragment of a porcelain doll's head indicated that a particular site was originally a house or other domestic building.

Further analysis of the ceramic samples collected during my project could yield fascinating information regarding the history of the region prior to the existence of the Naval Station. Questions about who exactly lived and worked on these sites and how they interacted with their neighbors who lived in what is now outside the base's property have yet to be answered.

Sarah Thomas - Although the violin is one of the most beloved of today's instruments, the story of its development is not commonly known. In Cremona, Italy, over a period of two hundred years, the violin evolved in the hands of skilled craftsmen and violin making families. By the nineteenth century, the legendary stories of master violin makers like Antonio Stradivari and Andrea Amati dominated popular and academic history. The past violins thus seemed unattainable by modern craftsmen.

In the early to mid twentieth century, current events prevented the publication of articles and findings on the violin outside of Italy. Only recently has Cremonese violin making scholarship begun to be published in English.

I therefore decided to spend seven weeks in Cremona, a city full of violin shops and Stradivari piazzas. I conducted my research in many places, including the State Library, and I also visited many museums and archives in Cremona. I went to the many violin making shops to learn hands-on about how Amati, Stradivari, or Guarneri constructed violins.

One of the most influential and best violin makers in Cremona today is Francesco Bissolotti. His son, Marco Vinicio Bissolotti, is not only a violin maker, but also a violin historian. He assisted me in many ways. For example, he took me behind the scenes on a private tour of the Stradivarian Museum where I met its famous curator, Andrea Mosconi.

With these experiences, I learned that Cremonese violin making is characterized by the pursuit of the purest sound by many individuals and families, like the Amatis, Guarneris, Stradivaris, and Bergonzis. The methods of the past can and are used by some Cremonese today, demystifying the historical fog that surrounded the famous masters. By living in Cremona this summer, I learned the history of the development of the violin.

Joshua Turner - I've always been fascinated by religion's ability to influence public life and discussion, especially in the political sphere. Elections have been often been won or lost through appeals to religious groups or principles, and religious institutions have often played a major role in political change. Lately, however, religion's influence in politics seems to have been a negative one; it has contributed to a dangerous atmosphere of forced polarization and to the absolute confidence of leaders in the rightness of their cause.

Confident that religion could be a more positive force, I sought out a perspective that might offer an alternative to the politics we see today. During my several weeks of research, study and contemplation, I focused my attention on Christian traditions of inquiry because of my familiarity with them, and was pleased to find a line of thought that encourages a more practical, moderate and cooperative politics.

Based on the insights that this particular tradition offers, especially its emphasis on the moral and rational fallibility that human beings possess, I argue for a philosophical position that seeks a balance between the moral poles of caring only about the consequences of an action and being bound to absolute principles.

This position emphasizes the importance of the activities and ongoing dialogues which provide the contexts and limitations of principles and arguments, and highlights the critical importance of civil society in shaping and moderating the moral and political dialogue in our republic.

Kendall Wangsgard - Hadrian's Wall has long been one of the greatest monuments to Roman conquest and imperial strength. Despite its extensive and impressive history it often receives less than its due historical consideration.

With this in mind, I have chosen to visit and hike the extent of the wall while experiencing and investigating the historical and factual basis of this majestic remain. Having concluded an extensive and thorough investigation of the physical construction, historical past and remaining ruins I have built a comprehensive factual basis.

Additionally, I draw upon my own personal experiences traveling. Side trips to other important non-wall sites such as the fortress at Vindolanda, Bath in southern England, York, London and the Antonine Wall round out the expedition. Visits have been made to every major fort, milecastle, signal station and turret still in existence on the wall.

Finally, I have augmented my experience through authoritative texts on the subject and interviews with William and Mary faculty in the Department of Classical Studies. Combining these elements, this project elucidates the factual elements while also giving important commentary on the current condition of this invaluable antiquity. I hope to inform and entertain, ultimately encouraging others to seek a greater understanding and perhaps even a visit to this amazing historical place.

Michael Woolslayer - My Summer 2006 Monroe Project consisted of three primary aspects:

First, I pursued an internship at the United Kingdom Parliament, which gave me first-hand knowledge of the British political system and access to resources that were immensely useful in gauging and understanding legislative responses. This placement also gave me the opportunity to talk to actual lawmakers to ascertain the pressures he or she labors under on this issue.

Second, I was enrolled in two courses at the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), one on British Parliament and Politics and the other on UK Public Policy. These courses gave me a much more in-depth understanding of the political process from which this legislation stems.

Third, I gained membership to the British Library of Political and Economic Sciences, giving me access to one of the largest collections of writings on political science in the world.

In order to take advantage of the opportunities stated above, available no where else in the world, I conducted my research in London, England. This research was conducted over a period of twelve weeks, beginning on 19 May and ending on 5 August.

My final product is a dissertation of about 10,000 words on the topic of Legislative Responses to Terrorism in the United Kingdom. It consists of a comparative study between the UK's responses in the 1970s and 1980s to IRA terrorism and the current measures being taken against international extremist violence.