Sam received his Bachelor of Arts in History from Bates College in May 2014. He is a second-year graduate student going for a PhD. Sam researches the security history of seventeenth and eighteenth century North America, looking at issues of defense, policing and social control. For example, he is strongly interested in the social and political role played by militia institutions throughout American history. His current primary interest is in the close relationships between fortifications and communities in early America, exploring connections between fortifications and seaport trade, home ownership,representative government, militia service, state expansion and gender roles (not to mention more traditional concerns like the patterns of frontier warfare). He is interested in comparing the role played by fortifications in the different Euroamerican colonial societies with those of the indigenous nations.