Asynchronous learning: Students in a class receive material at different times. Usually the instructor pre-records lectures for students to watch or listen to at any time.
Synchronous learning: Everyone in a class receives material at the same time. The traditional classroom lecture is one example of synchronous learning, but in the e-learning context, it usually means material is presented in real time via a video feed.
Flipped classroom: Students listen/watch prerecorded lectures; in-class time is devoted to discussion.
MOOC: An acronym for “massive online open course,” a class with large enrollment, conducted online. Beware: the definition of MOOC is still being formed.