The U.S. Navy is investing in Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV) technology as a tool for intelligence, warfare, and maintenance. The Department of Defense, however, is not paying sufficient attention to the ways UUVs can be used against the United States. The proliferation of UUVs will give weak states and non-state actors increased access to underwater pipelines, communications networks, and harbors—leaving these strategic regions vulnerable to attack. UUVs could create security threats by opening potential targets for attack to nonstate actors.
Terrorists, such as Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS), have invested significant resources in radicalizing Western women from Europe and North America. Women, in general, enhance terrorist capabilities by being able to generate greater media attention because their assumed gender roles do not fit the typical profile of a terrorist. Using Western women further enhances terrorist capabilities. These women are more familiar with Western culture and less likely to generate suspicion because of their gender, increasing the likelihood that they can perpetrate attacks against well-defended targets. To combat the threat of radicalized Western women, this white paper proposes an online campaign that addresses three main components: viewership, messenger, and content. This white paper also recommends an appropriate response for any possible attacks carried out by Western women.
Developing governments lack the capacity to mitigate the effects of fast-paced epidemics. The rapid spread of highly pathogenic infectious diseases, such as Ebola, H5N1, and MERS, can precipitate state failure, enabling terrorism, illicit commercial activity, and further spread of disease. Typically, international responses to disease are health-based. But, medical intervention alone is insufficient to combat the political ramifications of disease. The United States should invest in community intervention and proximity policing provided by peers to improve local security and cooperation with disease protocol. These measures engage citizens and state officials on a community level to bolster trust and government legitimacy in fragile states plagued by epidemic.
Sectarian and class tensions, augmented by immigration, contribute to instability in many regions of India, in particular the northern state of Assam. Immigration from Bangladesh has exacerbated these tensions, which will likely worsen as climate change produces more natural disasters and a larger flow of refugees. The influx of Bangladeshi refugees will likely lead to unrest that may undermine India’s economy, weaken its democracy, and erode its potential as a counterweight to China. To address this issue, the international community, led by the United States, should reform its current aid practices in Bangladesh.
Fragile states—such as Pakistan, Mexico, and the Philippines—are often unable to provide social services and mitigate regional, ethnic, and religious divisions. Their underdeveloped institutional capacity limits the long-term ability of states to exert administrative authority throughout their territory and meet the basic needs of citizens. If fragile states fail to build these capabilities, they will be unable to prevent extremist and criminal organizations from filling power vacuums or facilitate sustainable economic development. To enhance the institutional capacity of fragile states and reduce the risk of state failure, Washington should incentivize U.S. universities to create a comprehensive e-learning curriculum for civil servants in financial management, project management, and strategic planning.
For decades, the international community has conceptualized refugee camps as “holding tanks” that provide basic security, shelter, medical care, and sustenance to refugees until repatriation. Refugees live in difficult conditions with few economic opportunities, making them susceptible to radicalization—especially, under conditions of extended habitation. Recognizing this challenge, the UNHCR recently announced plans to facilitate the bypassing camps in favor of alternative strategies for handling refugees.
This brief proposes that neither the holding tank model nor the practice of bypassing camps address the problems that refugees face. The holding tank approach squanders the capabilities of refugees, while the practice of bypassing camps denies refugees social services. Camps should, instead, be restructured to resemble schoolhouses for post-conflict reconstruction where residents can teach and learn valuable governance and economic skills.