Concussions and Post-Concussion Syndrome

Closed Head Injury Open Head Injury
Post-Concussion Syndrome Traumatic Brain Injury
Traumatic Brain Injury (NICHD)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that people must go to the hospital. The worst injuries can lead to permanent brain damage or death. Half of all TBIs are from motor vehicle accidents. Military personnel in combat zones are also at risk. Symptoms of a TBI may not appear until days or weeks following the injury. A concussion is the mildest type. It can cause a headache or neck pain, nausea, ringing in the ears, dizziness, and tiredness (Medline).

Closed Head Injury (Brain Injury Association of America)

Occurs when a person receives an impact to the head from an outside force, fracturing or displacing the skull. © 2015 Brain Injury Association of America. All Rights Reserved.

Open Head Injury (Brain Injury Association of America)

When a person receives an impact to the head from an outside force, but the skull does not fracture or displace this condition is termed a "closed head injury". Again, separate terminology is added to describe the brain injury. For example, a person may have a closed head injury with a severe traumatic brain injury. © 2015 Brain Injury Association of America. All Rights Reserved.

Post-Concussion Syndrome (NINDS)

In the days or weeks after a concussion, a minority of individuals may develop post-concussion syndrome (PCS). People can develop this syndrome even if they never lost consciousness. The symptoms include headache, fatigue, cognitive impairment, depression, irritability, dizziness and balance trouble, and apathy. These symptoms usually improve without medical treatment within one to a few weeks but some people can have longer lasting symptoms.

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