2006 Ph.D., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Social Psychology
2004 M.A., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Social Psychology
2001 B.A., Magna cum Laude, with Honors, Randolph-Macon College, Psychology
My main area of research focuses on using a social cognitive approach to examine how individuals perceive members of different social groups. More specifically, I am interested in how attention is allocated to members of different social groups during categorization and how this might affect later stereotype activation. The social categories I study most often (i.e., race, sexual orientation) are those for whom stereotype activation has been shown to be instrumental in affecting later behavior towards individuals of derogated groups, such as Blacks and homosexuals. Another line of research I have developed since coming to William & Mary is the examination of factors that influence the confrontation of prejudice against the derogated groups listed above. Specifically, I explore situational and personality variables that affect the behavior of majority group members after witnessing a prejudicial comment. Finally, another area of research I have been actively pursuing is examining how smokers and non-smokers allocate attention to smoking versus non-smoking stimuli, and how an attentional bias is moderated by smoking behavior, craving, and motivation.
Selected Recent Publications
Dickter, C. L. (in press). Confronting hate: Heterosexuals’ responses to antigay comments. Journal of Homosexuality.
Dickter, C. L., & Newton, V. A. (in press). To confront or not to confront: Non-targets’ responses to racist comments. Journal of Applied Social Psychology.
Dickter, C. L., & Forestell, C. A. (2012). Peering through the smoke: The effect of parental smoking behavior and addiction on daily smokers’ attentional bias to smoking cues. Addictive Behaviors, 27, 187-192. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2011.09.017.
Jia, L., Dickter, C. L., Luo, J., Xiao, X., Yang, Q., Lei, M., Qiu, J., & Zhang, Q. (2012). Different brain mechanisms between stereotype activation and application: Evidence from an ERP study. International Journal of Psychology, 47(1): 58-66. doi: 10.1080/00207594.2011.580348
Haight, J., Dickter, C. L., & Forestell, C. A. (2011). A comparison of daily and occasional smokers’ implicit affective responses to smoking cues. Addictive Behaviors. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2011.10.006
Dickter, C. L. & Gyurovski, I. I. (2011). The effects of expectancy violations on early attention to race in an impression formation paradigm. Social Neuroscience. doi:10.1080/17470919.2011.609906
Dickter, C. L., Kittel, J. A., & Gyurovski, I. I. (2011). Perceptions of non-target confronters in response to racist and heterosexist remarks. European Journal of Social Psychology. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.855.
Forestell, C. A., Dickter, C. L., Wright, J. D., & Young, C. M. (2011). Clearing the smoke: Parental influences on non-smokers’ attentional biases to smoking-related cues. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. doi: 10.1037/a0025096
Bartholow, B. D., & Dickter, C. L. (2011). Person perception. In J. Decety & J. Cacioppo (Eds.), Handbook of Social Neuroscience, New York: Oxford University Press.
Newton, V. A., Dickter, C. L., & Gyurovski, I. I. (2011). The effects of stereotypical cues on the social categorization and judgment of ambiguous-race targets. Journal of Interpersonal Relations, Intergroup Relations and Identity, 4, 31-45.
Dickter, C. L., & Bartholow, B. D. (2010). Ingroup categorization and response conflict: Interactive effects of target race, flanker compatibility and infrequency on N2 amplitude. Psychophysiology, 47, 596-601.
Bartholow, B. D., & Dickter, C. L. (2008). A response conflict account of the effects of stereotypes on racial categorization. Social Cognition, 26(3), 273-291.
Dickter, C. L., & Bartholow, B. D. (2007). Racial ingroup and outgroup attention biases revealed by event-related brain potentials. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 2(3), 189-198.
Courses Taught at William & Mary
Seminar in Stereotypes and Prejudice, PSYC 470, AFST 406, WMST 490
Elementary Statistics, PSYC 301
Social Psychology, PSYC 314
Advanced Research Methods in Social Psychology, PSYC 414
Proseminar in Social Psychology, PSYC 608