The German Studies section is committed to providing undegraduates with the opportunity to engage in primary research with faculty members as well as on their own. To this end, GRMN 411 Independent Study can be taken multiple times during an undergaduate's career (provided there is different content) for variable credit.
Spring-Break Study-Research Trip in Judaic and German Studies (Rob Leventhal, Associate Professor of German Studies, March 5-15, 2015)
Jewish Cultural and Social Pathways in the Upper Rhine Valley
We were slated to leave Thursday, March 5th, from RIC on a study-research spring-break trip, sponsored by the Meyers Stern Endowment in Judaic Studies that would take us to the Upper Rhine Valley from Basel, Switzerland to Cologne Germany in eight days. Time was of the essence. On Monday of that week, it became clear that winter snowstorm Thor was going to hit the mid-Atlantic hard. On the assumption that our flight from RIC to Dulles would be cancelled, and working together with Dean Lu Ann Homza and Covington Travel, we decided to drive to Dulles in the hope that our flight to Frankfurt would be able to depart. We were right! The RIC-Dulles flight was cancelled, and our Frankfurt flight, although delayed four hours by the blinding snow – it reached 10 inches at Dulles that afternoon and eve – was finally de-iced and took to the sky at 9:45pm.
Day 1: Frankfurt
Our first stop was Frankfurt am Main, a major center for Jewish life from the early modern period until the Nazi seizure of power in 1933. Our destination was the Frankfurt Jewish Museum, in particular the special exhibition “Im Lichte der Menora” (In the Light of the Menora), about the Jews in Roman settlements in the Upper Rhine Valley dating from the 4th century CE. Here, we were able to view, for example, the famous “menorah” ring from the 4th century CE found at the Augusta Raurica just outside of Basel. This exhibit gave the students and me the very real sense of Christians and Jews living together in communities throughout the Rhine Valley as the Empire began to dissolve. Decisive information about temples, worship, family, the Rabbis, gender, communality and governance (and self-governance!) helped us construct a vivid portrait of Jewish life in medium- sized and even smaller communities in the Rhine Valley from the 4th century CE until 1200.
The Menora Ring, Augusta Raurica, 4th century CE
Days 2 and 3: Basel
A bowl with the Star of David, 4-5th century CE
The Central Synagogue Hebrew Bible Translation, Basel 1546
The next stop was Basel, Switzerland, where for centuries Jews were forced to live outside of the City gates and could only gain entrance on specific days with a special pass. We visited the Augusta Raurica, one of earliest and best-preserved Roman archeological sites north of Alps, where many Jewish artifacts from the period 4th – 5 th c. CE have been found. The Jewish Museum of Switzerland provided the perfect example of what is called the “back room” museum, very rich in materials but with literally no “storefront.” It is hidden in an inner courtyard in one of Basel’s upscale neighborhoods. Our guide took us into the Basel Synagogue, built in the second half of the 19th century, designed by a German (Christian) architect. Basel was one of the premier book-printing centers of Europe in the 1500s, and we saw beautiful examples of translations of the Hebrew Bible from the mid 16th century. Basel was also the home to the First World Zionist Congress in 1897, and Herzl’s presence could be felt by the large photograph of him at the bridge overlooking the Rhine. Two key Jewish communities outside of Basel, Lengau and Endingen, survived. Our guide was an Israeli who had married a man from one of these surrounding Jewish communities.
Jewish Life in Sulzburg in the Black Forest, circa 1920.
Days 4 and 5: Freiburg / Sulzburg/ Staufen
|Jewish Swim Club, Sulzburg, circa 1920.|
On Sunday, we took the train to Freiburg-im-Breisgau, at the foot of the Black Forest in Southwestern Germany. Freiburg itself was the launching pad for our excursion to the tiny village of Sulzburg in the Black Forest, where a Jewish community thrived until it was deported to the French Concentration Camp Gurs, and from there to the killing centers in the East. In the beautiful Synagogue, plundered by the Nazis but not destroyed as it was too close to the surrounding homes, restored and now housing a small museum dedicated to the Jews of Sulzburg and their history, we saw evidence of how Jews lived in the late 18th, 19 th and early 20th centuries with Christians side by side as neighbors. A map showed us how the Jewish homes were spread throughout the small village; other images and objects revealed the life of Jews: merchants, tradesmen, traveling salesmen of kitchen and farm wares, Rabbis, schoolteachers, physicians. We saw evidence of a Jewish Swim Club from the 1920s, and the amazing cemetery just outside of the village itself on the side of a hill, still standing – not desecrated –covering the entire side of a hill. The tales of Jacob Picard (“The Marked One”) of Landjuden in the late 19th and early 20th century accompanied us as we made our way up the beautiful valley into the Black Forest to an Inn where we enjoyed cake and tea. In Freiburg, we met with Daniela Schaffart, the director of the wonderful documentary film Geschichte ganz nah — Eine Reise zu den Gedenkstätten in meiner Heimat (History Close-Up: A Journey to the Memorial Sites of my Homeland).
The Jewish Cemetery of Sulzburg
The “Team” in front of the New Synagogue, Mainz, from left to right: W&M students Sarah Wall, Casey Neary, Claire Etheridge, Natalie Morgan, Mary Andino, Chloe Wang, Matthew Noah baker
Days 6 and 7: Magenza: Mainz / Speyer / Worms
Heiliger Sand in Worms Mikveh/Speyer Entrance to Mikveh Old Synagogue/Worms
On Tuesday and Wednesday, we were in Mainz, where we took in the new Synagogue and visited the Chagall Windows at St. Stephens Church. We also went to Speyer to view the ShPIRA Museum, the remains of the Old Synagogue (1185, and still in use today), and its incredible Mikveh (Ritual Bath), the oldest one of its kind north of the Alps (1120). The Synagogue was destroyed by the Nazis during Kristallnacht in 1938, but the stones from the Synagogue covered up the entrance to the Mikveh so thoroughly that it went unharmed for the remainder of the War. In Worms, the great Bible scholar/commentator Rabbi Schlomo Yitzchaki (Rashi) lived and taught during the Middle Ages, roughly 1060-1105. The Rashi house provided many insights into jewish learning in the High Middle Ages.
Day 8: Bacharach: Legend and Living History
Bacherach am Rhein was our next stop, where we stayed in the castle Burg Stahleck high above the river, which has been converted into a Youth Hostel. The students had read Heine’s famous Novella, The Rabbi of Bacharach, and the Sankt Werner Kapelle, which 20 years ago was on the verge of collapse, was on the trail up to the Castle. Sankt Werner is named thus as the supposed sanctified victim of a Blood Libel, a so-called Ritual Murder, one of the chief myths that circulated from the Medieval into the Early Modern Period and beyond of Jews murdering a Christian child for the use of their blood. The Catholic Church of the region wanted to allow the Saint Werner Chapel to collapse, and thus all memory of the sanctification and its ongoing effect erased, but a grassroots organization led by local Lawyer Peter Keber, whom Professor Leventhal met while on the mountain path going back to the Castle, raised 6m EURO to have the Chapel transformed into a site of Christian-Jewish Reconciliation work, a series of ongoing lectures, workshops and talks on German-Jewish Relations. Peter came by Friday morning to drop off the volume Toleranz vor Augen (Tolerance before Our Very Eyes) [Mainz, 2010], which contains documentation of the project and Das Forum 2008-2009.
Day 9: Cologne
Cologne was our last stop before heading back to Frankfurt and then home. Unfortunately, the entire archeological zone is now closed due to the construction of the New Jewish Museum and Jewish Center. However, we visited the Olympics Museum to look for traces of the 1972 Munich Olympics, in which eleven Israeli athletes were killed in a shootout after they were held hostage and then abducted by members of Black September. To our amazement, we found only one small “black box” and a small plaque commemorating the massacre. The next morning, we went to the Stadtmuseum (The City Museum), where detailed histories of the Jews of Cologne provided us with an in-depth sense of Jews’ lives from the Middle Ages until the Nazi Genocide. In 1941, all avenues to escape the Nazi reign of terror were shut down, and by late 1942, most of the city’s 11,000 Jews had been deported to the concentration camps and killing centers in the East. The anti-Semitic figure of the Judensau (a mockery of Judaism and Jewish Dietary law) is found on a seat in the Cologne cathedral dating from 1210; the first pogrom against the Jews had occurred in 1348-49; and the Jews were expelled from the city in 1478, only allowed to return in the late 18th century.
This was an amazing trip. We all saw and learned so much. To experience these memorials, museums, and sites of remembrance/commemoration first hand enabled us to get a fuller, richer, more textured sense of Jewish History in Germany, the relations between Germans/Christians and Jews, and the ties that connected them since the Early Middle Ages. Most interesting for the group was to be able to question the well-rehearsed figures of the Ghetto Jew and Hofjude, to learn about Landjuden, and to place alongside the history of oppression and victimhood (to be sure, a very important vector of German-Jewish History) another history of periodic but significant co-existence, even flourishing. We experienced the pre-history of the Haskalah, the Jewish Enlightenment and the drive for emancipation in the second half of the 18th century.
An earlier collaborative research project was conducted by Professor Rob Leventhal with five W&M undergraduates during the spring and summer of 2007. The group traveled to Munich for spring break March 9-17, 2007 thanks to grants from The Reves Center, the Charles Center, and the Associate Provost for Research, to interview members of the Jewish Community, experience Jewish sites of remembrance, and explore Munich's Jewish history.
Community, Memory, and Shifting Jewish Identities in Post-Wall Germany: The Case of Munich
Prof. Rob Leventhal, with K.C. Tydgat ('07), Sam Thacker ('08), Ben Fontana ('09) and Olivia Lucas ('08)
The "negative symbiosis" of post-war German-Jewish culture took a decisive turn in 1989 with the fall of the Wall and the almost immediate unification of Germany one year later. Based as it was on a specifically German-Jewish perspective and orientation, this prevailing reading of the situation of the Jews in Germany underwent a radical change with the simultaneous dissolution of the Soviet Union, and the Federal Republic's willingness to serve as a Zufluchtsort - a place of sanctuary - for over 200,000 Russian Jews over the next fifteen years. Munich became a destination of choice for many Russian Jewish émigrés, often even preferred to Israel and the United States. The utopistic promise of the reunification, the initial euphoria that followed 1990, the social welfare state of Germany, and the strength of the existing Jewish community in Munich all contributed to a powerful vision of future affluence, citizenship, cultural and social belonging and support that attracted thousands of Russian Jews to Munich.
By 1996-1997, however, this positive image of Germany and the optimistic sense of the Russian Jewish émigrés had changed radically. In a study published in 1999 based on data captured and analyzed in the preceding two years, the team of Julius Schoeps painted a very bleak picture indeed both of the current state of this community as well as its short and longer term prospects unless fundamental changes could be made, both by the Jewish Gemeinde, and the city, state and federal governments. Schoeps and his team pointed out that while fear of anti-Semitism had fallen since 1993-1996 (when it was at its height because of Mölln, Solingen, Heyerswerda and other quite vicious and very well-publicized attacks against foreigners, mostly by Neo-Nazi groups), there has been a dramatic increase in unemployment among the Russian Jewish émigrés, problems with integration into the work and housing market, insufficient and poor language instruction, increasing isolation and alienation, both from the existing Jewish Community and the German communities in which they were embedded, the sense of loss of both prior status and present perspective, feelings of dependence and hopelessness. Many respondents to their questionnaire indicated a kind of cultural collective depression.
The situation for Russian Jewish émigrés in the Federal Republic of Germany has changed radically over the last two years. Most importantly, significant changes in the Federal Law concerning immigration have all but cut off the flow of Jewish émigrés from the former Soviet States. According to the new procedures and regulations of the German Immigration Law, there are essentially three classes of Jewish émigrés from the former Soviet States: there are those who placed an application to enter Germany prior to July 1, 2001, those who placed their immigration application between the July 1, 2001 and December 12, 2004; and those who placed their Einreiseantrag after the 12th of December, 2004.
The new Zuwanderungsgesetz that went into effect January 1, 2005 replaced the HumMAG - the humanitarian assistance program or Kontigentsflüchtlingsgesetz - and made the following requirements prerequisites for a successful application for emigration into the FRG: 1) the person must be of Jewish "nationality", come from at least one Jewish person (mother or father, unlike the Jewish Law to which they are subject by the Einheitsgemeinde of Germany once they arrive), and have not been a member of any other religious community; 2) the applicant must be able to demonstrate knowledge of the German Language at least at the level of the GERR Level A1 (Gemeinsamer Europaischer Referenzrahmen für Sprachen); this condition is also obligatory for those members of the family seeking to enter Germany with the applicant; 3) they must receive a "positive Integrationsprognose" - meaning that they must be judged to have a likely positive integration process in Germany - from BAMF, and they must be able to show that they will be able to support themselves once in the Federal Republic; 4) they must demonstrate that they are capable of being accepted into a Jewish Community (Gemeinde) by the Zentralwohlfahrtstelle für Juden in Deutschland e.V. (ZWFST). The only exceptions to these conditions are the cases of clearly demonstrable victims of the Nazi persecution itself, in which case the Integrationsprognose by the ZWFST and the German Language proficiency requirements are dropped.
The possibility of admitting more Russian Jewish émigrés has now been directly linked to ability and willingness of the Länder to support the GemeindeGemeinde. For the period after 2006, while there have been many negotiations among the four parties directly involved - the Auswärtiges Amt, the BAMF, the Zentralrat der Juden in Deutschland, and the Union Progressiver Juden - and supposedly some oral "financial commitments" have been made, as of this writing no actual fundsGemeinde. For the year 2005, no applications or Anträge for entry into the Federal Republic were accepted: "Die deutschen Botschaften und Konsulate in den Ländern der ehemaligen Sovietunion haben nach Auslaufen des ‘Kontingentverfahrens' am 31. Dezember 2004 schlichtweg keine Auswanderungsanträge mehr angenommen." Secondly, according to a recent article by Tobias Kuhn, "Die Integrationskasse ist leer." ("The integration account [the federal funds for the integration efforst of the Gemeinde] is empty."
In 2003, on the 65th anniversary of Kristallnacht, then Federal President Johannes Rau helped lay the first stone of Jüdisches Zentrum Jakobsplatz - the Jewish Center at the Jakobsplatz - a massive architectural and cultural event that is now becoming the location for the new central Synagogue, the Jewish Museum of Munich, a Jewish Community Center, and a Jewish School. A plot to bomb the ceremony by members of a neo-nazi group was successfully thwarted. The Synagogue opened its doors on November 9, 2006, and the Jewish Museum will be inaugurated on March 22, 2007. While some observers claim that such physical demonstrations of culture merely "externalize" or "displace" the deeper cultural conflicts, and many German Jews remain highly skeptical of a "reemergence of Jewish culture,"
This Student-Faculty Research Project explores this significant reconstruction and reemergence in Munich as a cultural and social event that is saturated with historical meaning and rife with conflicted and conflicting views, both for the German Jews and DPs of the first and second generation and the Russian Jewish émigrés who have arrived since 1989. Through close study of the recent research, literature and journalism, close tracking of the history of this emergence, on-site interviews with key literary, historical, and community figures, and an interpretive analysis of the structures themselves in their historical, social, and cultural contexts, GRMN 411 has attempted to a understand what precisely is at stake in this reconstruction, how it is being interpreted and used, how it is being perceived and appropriated.
This student-faculty research seminar GIS enabled students to explore and research a contemporary historical event in its actual real-time unfolding, uncover the historical and cultural forces at play in this unfolding, and present original work suitable for presentation and /or publication. The first pilot paper was presented at the German Studies Association Conference in San Diego in October, 4-7 2007.
The resultant article will appear in January 2011:
“Community, Memory, and Shifting Jewish Identities: The Case of Munich, 1989 to the Present,” Journal of Jewish Identities, Special Issue: Russian-Jewish Immigrant Identity Post 1970, Vol. 3, No. 2 (Fall, 2010).
Dan Diner, "Negative Symbiosis. Deutsche und Juden nach Auschwitz" Babylon 1 (1986): 9-20. This view has been echoed and amplified by many, including Sander Gilman, "German Reunification and the Jews," New German Critique (1991): 173-191 and Katja Behrens, "The Rift and not the Symbiosis," in: Unlikely History: The Changing German-Jewish Symbiosis (London: Palgrave, 2002): 32-43.
Julius Schoeps, Willi Jasper, Bernhard Vogt, "Jüdische Zuwanderer aus der GUS-Zur Problematik von sozio-kultureller und generationsspezifischer Integration" in: Ein neues Judentum in Deutschland? Fremd- und Eigenbilder rusiisch-jüdischer Einwanderer (Potsdam: Verlag für Berlin-Brandenburg, 1999): 13-139.
See James E. Young, The Texture of Memory (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999), p.5 and his article "The Topography of Germany Memory, " The Journal of Art (March, 1991), where he argues that the more memory is externalized in monuments and actual physical buildings/structures, the less it, and its conflicts and ambivalences, are experienced internally.
This skepticism is extremely widespread, expressed by literary authors, cultural critics, historians, and public figures alike. See especially: Micha Brumlik, Kein Weg als Deutscher und Jude (Munich: Luchterhand, 1996); Rafael Seligmann, "Nicht in jüdischer Macht," Die Zeit Nov. 25, 1999; Y. Michal Bodemann, "A Reemergence of Jewish Life?" in: Reemerging Jewish Culture in Germany: Life and Literature since 1989 (New York/London: NYU Press, 1994) 47-60.