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Documenting Books

For every source in your paper, you must provide complete bibliographical information so your reader will know where you got the information. This allows your readers to find the sources in order to evaluate your interpretation of them or to read more extensively from them to gain a deeper understanding of the topic. There are numerous ways to document sources, and most academic disciplines have their own preferred methods and style manuals to guide the way. While each historian is different and opinions are in a constant state of flux, the most widely used style manual for historians continues to be the Chicago Manual of Style.

The Chicago Manual of Style uses a system of footnotes or endnotes for documentation, along with a bibliography. Kate Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations and Mary Lynn Rampolla's A Pocket Guide to Writing in History (which was used extensively in preparing this guide) are also widely used by historians, since both are based on the Chicago system of documentation. Most historians, feeling the system imprecise and prone to misunderstandings, do not use or accept parenthetical documentation as promoted by the Modern Language Association. However, as with all issues about writing, you should consult your professor's guidelines for documentation and follow them. The following examples, based on the Chicago system, are simply models for instruction. They should not take the place of using the appropriate style manuals for your classes, especially since the examples treat only the most common citations. Please direct any questions you have to your professor or the HWRC.

Note: The first example in each case below is the note form, footnote or endnote, and the second example in each case is the bibliography form. Take notice of the differences between the two forms in word order, punctuation, spacing, and format.

The Basic Book Forms:

     1Carol Sheriff, The Artificial River: The Erie Canal and the Paradox of Progress, 1817-1862 (New York: Hill and Wang, 1996), 44-46.

     Sheriff, Carol. The Artificial River: The Erie Canal and the Paradox of Progress, 1817-1862. New York: Hill and Wang, 1996.

     3Lu Ann Homza, Religious Authority in the Spanish Renaissance (Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000), 78.

     Homza, Lu Ann. Religious Authority in the Spanish Renaissance. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000.

Secondary Reference in Notes

In footnotes or endnotes, when making additional references to the same work by the same author, use the shortened form of note number, author's last name, and page number of reference. If you refer to more than one book by the same author anywhere in your notes, you must add a short title to the secondary reference note.

     2Sheriff, 107.

     8Homza, Religious Authority, 190.

The Latin term "Ibid." may also be used if the reference is to the same source in the previous citation. If, however, the source in the previous citation is different, "Ibid." may not be used. In addition, you must never use "Ibid." if the previous note refers to more than one work. Although "ibid." is technically correct, its use is growing out of favor for a number of reasons. You should always consult your professor with any questions you have about the use of "Ibid." and other documentation questions.

A Book with Two or More Authors

List the authors in the same order they appear on the title page.

     6James P. Ronda and James Axtell, Indian Missions: A Critical Bibliography (Bloomington: Published for the Newbury Library by Indiana University Press, 1978), 38.

     Ronda, James P. and James Axtell. Indian Missions: A Critical Bibliography. Bloomington: Published for the Newbury Library by Indiana University Press, 1978.

Important Note: When dealing with a book with three or more authors, you may use the Latin term "et al." (meaning "all the others") after the first author instead of listing all of the authors. For example, "Ronald Hoffman et al."

An Anonymous Work

If the author is unknown and there is no editor or compiler, begin your cite with the title.

     7Images of America: A Panorama of History in Photographs (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Books, 1989), 23.

     Images of America: A Panorama of History in Photographs. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Books, 1989.

An Edited Work Without an Author

Cite a book by its editor (ed.), editors (eds.), or compiler (comp.) if no author appears on the title page.

     2Judith Ewell and William H. Beezley, eds., The Human Tradition in Latin America: The Nineteenth Century (Wilmington, Del: SR Books, 1989), 23.

     Ewell, Judith and William H. Beezley, eds. The Human Tradition in Latin America: The Nineteenth Century. Wilmington, Del: SR Books, 1989.

An Edited Work with an Author

If an author's name is provided along with an editor, place the editor's name after the title.

     6John Adams et al., The Adams-Jefferson Letters: The Complete Correspondence between Thomas Jefferson and Abigail and John Adams, ed. Lester J. Cappon (Chapel Hill: Published for the Institute of Early American History and Culture by the University of North Carolina Press, 1959), 48.

     Adams, John, et al. The Adams-Jefferson Letters: The Complete Correspondence between Thomas Jefferson and Abigail and John Adams. Edited by Lester J. Cappon. Chapel Hill: Published for the Institute of Early American History and Culture by the University of North Carolina Press, 1959.

A Translated Work

A translator's name, like an editor's, is placed after the title when the author's name is given. If a source has both an editor and translator, both should be given, editor first.

     32Horst Dippel, Germany and the American Revolution, 1770-1800: A Sociohistorical Investigation of Late Eighteenth-Century Political Thinking, trans. Bernhard A. Uhlendorf (Chapel Hill: Published for the Institute of Early American History and Culture by the University of North Carolina Press, 1977), 212-214.

     Dipple, Horst. Germany and the American Revolution, 1770-1800: A Sociohistorical Investigation of Late Eighteenth- Century Political Thinking. Translated by Bernhard A. Uhlendorf. Chapel Hill: Published for the Institute of Early American History and Culture by the University of North Carolina Press, 1977.

A Multivolume Work

If you cite a whole work that is published in multiple volumes, include the total number of volumes after the title.

     23John Marshall, The Papers of John Marshall, 6 vols., ed. Herbert A. Johnson, et al. (Chapel Hill: Published for the Institute of Early American History and Culture by the University of North Carolina Press, 1974--).

     Marshall, John. The Papers of John Marshall. 6 vols. Edited by Herbert A. Johnson, et al. Chapel Hill: Published for the Institute of Early American History and Culture by the University of North Carolina Press, 1974--Present.

Note: There are two ways to cite a single volume in a multivolume work. You can give the name of the volume first or the name of the series first.

     67John Marshall, Correspondence and Papers, November 10, 1775-June 23, 1778. Account Book, September 1783-June 1788. ed. Herbert A. Johnson, et al., vol. 1 of The Papers of John Marshall (Chapel Hill: Published for the Institute of Early American History and Culture by the University of North Carolina Press, 1974), 78.

     Marshall, John. Correspondence and Papers, November 10, 1775-June 23, 1778. Account Book, September 1783 -June 1788. Edited by Herbert A. Johnson, et al. Vol. 1 of The Papers of John Marshall. Chapel Hill: Published for the Institute of Early American History and Culture by the University of North Carolina Press, 1974.

Or

     67John Marshall, The Papers of John Marshall, vol. 1, Correspondence and Papers, November 10, 1775-June 23, 1778. Account Book, September 1783-June 1788. ed. Herbert A. Johnson, et al. (Chapel Hill: Published for the Institute of Early American History and Culture by the University of North Carolina Press, 1974), 78.

     Marshall, John. The Papers of John Marshall. Vol. 1, Correspondence and Papers, November 10, 1775-June 23, 1778. Account Book, September 1783-June 1788. Edited by Herbert A. Johnson, et al. Chapel Hill: Published for the Institute of Early American History and Culture by the University of North Carolina Press, 1974.

Note: If an individual volume of a multivolume work does not have its own title, include the volume number and page numbers after the publication information.

     45Cambridge History of American Foreign Relations (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 1:33-34.

     Cambridge History of American Foreign Relations. Vol. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Edition Other Than the First

    33Edward P. Crapol, ed., Women and American Foreign Policy: Lobbyists, Critics, and Insiders, 2nd. ed. (Wilmington, Del.: SR Books, 1992), 78.

     Crapol, Edward P. ed., Women and American Foreign Policy: Lobbyists, Critics, and Insiders, 2nd. ed. Wilmington, Del.: SR Books, 1992.

Forwards and Introductions

Authors of these are usually omitted from the citation unless the forward or introduction is the item cited.

     23William Peden, introduction to Notes on the State of Virginia, by Thomas Jefferson (Chapel Hill: Published for the Institute of Early American History and Culture by the University of North Carolina Press, 1955), xxv.

     Penden, William. Introduction to Notes on the State of Virginia, by Thomas Jefferson. Chapel Hill: Published for the Institute of Early American History and Culture by the University of North Carolina Press, 1955.

Chapter or Article in a Collection or Anthology

     21Dale Hoak, "Some Consequences of the Glorious Revolution" in The World of William and Mary: Anglo-Dutch Perspectives on the Revolution of 1688-89, eds. Dale Hoak and Mordechai Feingold (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1996), 45.

     Hoak, Dale. "Some Consequences of the Glorious Revolution." In The World of William and Mary: Anglo-Dutch Perspectives on the Revolution of 1688-89. Edited by Dale Hoak and Mordechai Feingold. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1996.

These other handouts on documentation are available from the History Writing Resources Center or as html files: